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May 1997 Digests

     Happy System Administrator Digest: 5-1-1997

     This is a moderated list for the discussion of installing
                and maintaing a Linux system.
              The moderator is Jon McClintock

                 Happy Administration!


1. Welcome to the Happy Systems Administration Digest
2. minilinux install??
3. Accessing a UUCP server
4. Monkey Linux
5. Downloading Linux
6. MKLinux Info
7. Re: MKLinux Info
8. Some Guestions
9. linux on laptop


1. Welcome to the Happy Systems Administration Digest
From: Jon <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

Welcome to Linux.

This digest is a spin-off of the Happy Hacker Digest. Its topic is Linux.
That's it. Linux. Running linux, installing linux, working with linux,
whatever, it goes here.

This digest is NOT about hacking. While it may cover methods of securing a
linux system, we will not discuss how to hack from/to a linux machine.

Currently, this digest will be sent out weekly, to all the recipients of the
Happy Hacking Digest. In the future, we will move the HSAD to another list.

Happy Administration,


2. minilinux install??
From: "Kurt Pfister" <kpfister@ao.net>

I have installed minilinux (another version of linux which does not
a partition) on my win95 box.  Install went fine, however whenever I
try to
start linux the startup program tells me that there is not enough free
memory between 90000h and 9ffffh and that there may be zombie programs
running (zombie programs??).  It also tells me that I should check to
what drivers may be occupying this space.
        When I check my system configuration I cannot see any drivers
which may be
using this space.  I then tried to reserve 90000h to 9ffffh but was
that I had entered at least one invalid value.  I don't know enough
hex to tell which value is invald.  Anyone have any ideas?  BTW this
thing happened when I tried to run monkeylinux.

[Jon: This may be something in your ROM configuration. (Some systems
      shadow ROM routines in RAM. ]


3. Accessing a UUCP server
From: *Anonymous*

I need ur help on some stuph. I have an e-mail account with an
UUCP service. It runs LINUX and when I connect to it, it just
transfrers my
mail to my comouter and recceived the ones that I have to send I use
and pegasus mail on my end. Now, how can I access the computer? Since
is no questions of Telnetting in?

[Jon: What would you want to access that for? There isn't much you
      could do. If you want a shell account, try asking the ISP. ]


4. Monkey Linux
From: Marius Mayerhoefer <ace_fth@hotmail.com>

        having read ALL (!) your articles I've finally decided to get
        LINUX.....YO!! Now, you have provided much general info on
installing and stuff, but you haven't written anthing         about how to use
it when you HAVE installed it !!! BTW what         about Monkey Linux ??
        I had planned to get Red Hat Linux but now I'm not so sure...
        it seems Monkey got all stuff I need for hacking....until now
        I have used several wardialers(lazy hacker-wannabe, you'll
say, but without UNIX, what else could I have done ?? Getting
        a shell account from my ISP is impossible...here in Austria
        there aren't too many providers...)....So should I get Red Hat
        or will Minkey suffice for hacking ?? I got 3,5 GB so HD-space
        is not a problem.....

                                         THANX in advance,

[Jon: I've never heard of Monkey Linux, but all you really need is
      a version of linux that will support networking with SLIP or
      PPP. ]


5. Downloading Linux
From: Andip Unknown <andi_panda@hotmail.com>

I just wondered if u knew where i could get a hold of Linux, and not just
different applications and utilities. I would like to download/buy a copy of
whole operating system. I tried to dowload something called Doslinux which was
supposed to be working from dos/doswindow without deleting my win95 setup, i
think. This didn't work, when i tried to decompress it it just used up all the
space on my harddrive.

Thanx in advance


[Jon: How much space do you have on your hard drive? Linux is gonna
      take upwards of 10 MB of space. Any distribution of Linux will
      run concurrently with Win95, as long as it supports/includes
      LILO. ]


6. MKLinux Info
From: Autarkis Aetherjammer

> From: mulder@jumbo.ntplx.net (Evil Ninja Mulder)
> alright....as sensitive as i am to the evils of reliance, BELIEVE me:
> i spent over an HOUR trying to find this one simple little tidbit of
> information. ..

Fire away..

> the problem is this: i am interested in running MKlinux, the apple
> port to Linux, on my computer, because i want to set up a small web
> server.
> ..but i found out the hard way i have no idea hwat linux really is.
> after traipsing around, i practically had a breakdown when no one
> revelas this fact:

Hmmmm...  did you find the alt.os.linux FAQ?  Or have all the copies
vanished again?

Linux is a Unix clone for PCs, Macs, and a couple other systems.

> can i keep my old os? i dont get this. how can i siwtch from one os or
> the other? this questions is SO elementary every site just overlooks
> it.

Yes, you can keep your old operating system.  I believe there is a way to
partition the Mac disk so that MacOS resides on one portion and LinuxMK
on the other.  Anyone running Lmk know this to be true?

Autarkis Aetherjammer

doctor who  -  founder:  RWCRD (Ravers Who Can't Really Dance)    2 -><- 3
            "and I hate to ask, but/are friends electric?"  -InSoc
http://www.lm.com/~bryce <- advertising e-mail proofreading charge: $2300 US


7. Re: MKLinux Info
From: Tristan Doherty <ristar@abacom.com>

>can i keep my old os? i dont get this. how can i siwtch from one os or
>the other? this questions is SO elementary every site just overlooks

Well, I'm not sure about MKLinux, since I don't have a powermac to play
with :( but I do run MacBSD on an old 68k IIcx that I've got lying around.
I assume that the procedure is about the same.

You will be able to keep MacOS on your computer but it won't be running at
the same time. You will have to make a second and third partition (or third
and fourth if you already have two) on your hard drive that you will store
Linux on. One is for all the files, and the other is for SWAP (like a disk
cache). After you have installed all the files with installers (available
from www.mklinux.apple.org I *think*), you will then run a little program
called a booter. What this does is effectively quit MacOS and start running
Linux. To go back to MacOS, you will have to restart (the command I use is
halt) and then your mac will boot back into macOS.

I *highly* recommend trying this, because for hacking, UNIX just rules, no

If you simply want to run a simple web server from your mac, try MacHTTP
1.0. It's probably available from www.shareware.com and is definitely
available from www.starnine.com. It's free, and it works like a charm for
low traffic sites that don't need lots of scripts (although it can quite
easily be done).

I hope that answers your question, and whatever you do, if you think you
can handle it, DO install linux, it will prove invaluable in your hacking


Tristan Doherty                      ristar@abacom.com


8. Some Guestions
From: *Anonymous*

Hi there,

1.  Is it possible to telnet into someones computer and shutting in
down. Or remote it. The computer is a normal PC, not a server or

[ Jon: There is software that allows you to dial in and turn a PC off,
       but under normal circumstances, you can not telnet into a PC
       and shut it down. ]

2. Wanna get a shell account for free, goto www.cyberspace.org.

3. Which is much recomended to use. Slakware, Redhat or Monkey for

[ Jon: Its all a matter of preference. I hear RedHat is really easy to
       install. I've only used Slackware. Each has its pro's and con's. ]

ps. If you feel that this shoulb be anonymous please post it up in
the     digest.

[ Jon: I will make any posts anonymous, just ask. ]


9. linux on laptop
From: Redington <nemesis@minot.com>

I am in the process of installing Linux on my 133 pentium notebook, I
have almost everything complete except two things.  I can't get it to
mount my PC Card modem, I have everything else setup like minicom etc,
does anyone know by any chance what the location is for the PC card
modem dev? The other thing is that when I startx the only way I can
it to work is if I have it in really low resolution because it doesn't
list any monitors or graphic cards that are like mine.  I have emailed
RedHat (oh yeah its Redhat 4.1, installing from CD) and they say they
will get back to me on it eventually, but I thought in the mean time
someone out there on HH might be able to help me out.



[ Jon: See the PCMCIA howto for more info, it may answer your question
       As far as resolution goes, try to find out which chipset your
       accellerator uses. Otherwise, your out of luck. ]


Jon McClintock <jammer@ecst.csuchico.edu>

              Happy Hacker Digest May 5, 1997

      This is a moderated list for discussions of *legal* hacking.
                        Moderator is Matt Hinze

             Send posts to: matt@cs.utexas.edu (Matt Hinze)
           [if you can, include a "HH" in the subject header]

Digest archives are held under the "New" button at the Infowar site

             Please don't send us anything you wouldn't
            email to your friendly neighborhood narc, OK?

To subscribe or unsubscribe, just
use the subscribe boxes on the menubars. If you decide you
just want to use the forum and not get these mailings, we promise our
feelings won't get hurt if you unsubscribe from this list.
          The Happy Hacker Digest Webpage, located at
 http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/matt/hh.html, contains recently
          discussed web sites and past URLs Of The Day
            (usually updated the day after the Digest is released).

         H a p p y  H a c k i n g !

URL Of The Day: http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/1613/main.html

Table Of Contents

* Note From Matt
* IBM 8235
* Viewing Full Header Info From MSIE Internet Mail
* Port Number Reference
* .rhosts?
* Windows NT 4.0 SAM Hotfix
* Programming Languages
* Macintosh Port Scanner
* Fighting Spam

*** Note From Matt

Hello Happy Hackers,

Well, for me, class is over, *finally*, for the summer. I do have a
couple of final exams left to ace, but studying for them won't be more
time consuming than class. This summer will be exciting. I will attend
a few hacker conferences and I landed a job at an ISP doing what I
(all of us, for that matter) enjoy most: messing around on computers.
Return of the BOFH! Of course, who cares about my personal life,
right? :) Anyway, The latest Guide To (mostly) Harmless Hacking was
just released, and if you haven't read it yet, you can snag a copy
from http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/matt/hh.html.


*** IBM 8235


Keep it anonymous please.

I'd like to know what a IBM 8235 system is, how it works and what is
it used for. If some1 has a list of commands it would be great. I know
'help' is one of them :)))


[Matt: Try a web search.]

*** Viewing Full Header Info In MSIE Internet Mail

From: "Scott" <dianner@ibm.net>

I just read your last post on Headers and stuff. It seemed you didnt
know how to check out headers on MS Internet Explorer. Well...I found
out how..Highlight the message you are going to read, and then right
click it. Go down to Properties. Once you are in there, click on the
Details tab, and WAHLA!! There you have, all the info you need...

Quadron X

*** Port Number Reference

From: [anonymous]

Please make this anonymous.

I found a list of port numbers and what they are at:
It's pretty comprehensive, goes up to 1024.

Amy Bridger (ami@full-moon.com)

WARNING! I cannot be held responsible for the above because my cats
have apparently learned to type.

[Matt: Each system can use different ports for some daemons. If you
want to see what ports a certain machine uses on a *nix box, check
/etc/services .]

*** .rhosts?

From: Luminus <Wiltz@concentric.net>

I have read that on some systems there is a vulnerability in which if
the "/." directory is writeable and owned by FTP a user from Anonymous
Ftp can upload a .rhosts file to this directory and use rlogin from
his system to access the target system.

My question is..what does an .rhosts file look like? Is there some
special format that it is in similiar to that of the passwd file?

[Matt: Try a "man rlogin".]

*** Windows NT 4.0 SAM Hotfix

From: Aleph One <aleph1@DFW.NET>

The information in this article applies to:

 - Microsoft Windows NT Workstation, version 4.0
 - Microsoft Windows NT Server, version 4.0


The Windows NT Server 4.0 System Key hotfix provides the capability to
use strong encryption techniques to increase protection of account
password information stored in the registry by the Security Account
Manager (SAM). Windows NT Server stores user account information,
including a derivative of the user account password, in a secure
portion of the Registry protected by access control and an obfuscation
function. The account information in the Registry is only accessible
to members of the Administrators group. Windows NT Server, like other
operating systems, allows privileged users who are administrators
access to all resources in the system. For installations that want
enhanced security, strong encryption of account password derivative
information provides an additional level of security to prevent
Administrators from intentionally or unintentionally accessing
password derivatives using Registry programming interfaces.


Microsoft has confirmed this to be a problem in Windows NT Server
version 4.0.

A supported fix is now available, but has not been fully
regression-tested and should be applied only to systems experiencing
this specific problem. Unless you are severely impacted by this
specific problem, Microsoft recommends that you wait for the next
Service Pack that contains this fix. Contact Microsoft Technical
Support for more information.

You can obtain this Application Note from the following sources:

 - Microsoft's World Wide Web Site on the Internet at:


 - The Internet (Microsoft anonymous ftp server) at:


 - Microsoft Technical Support


The strong encryption capability with the Windows NT 4.0 System Key
hotfix is an optional feature. Administrators may choose to implement
strong encryption by defining a System Key for Windows NT. Strong
encryption protects private account information by encrypting the
password data using a 128-bit cryptographically random key, known as a
password encryption key. Only the private password information is
strongly encrypted in the database, not the entire account database.
Every system using the strong encryption option will have a unique
password encryption key. The password encryption key is itself
encrypted with a System Key. Strong password encryption may be used on
both Windows NT Server and Workstation where account information is
stored. Using strong encryption of account passwords adds additional
protection for the contents of the SAM portion of the registry and
subsequent backup copies of the registry information in the
%systemroot%\repair directory created using the RDISK command and on
system backup tapes.

The System Key is defined using the command SYSKEY.EXE. Only members
of the Administrators group can run the SYSKEY.EXE command. The
utility is used to initialize or change the System Key. The System Key
is the "master key" used to protect the password encryption key and
therefore protection of the System Key is a critical system security

There are three options for managing the System Key designed to meet
the needs of different Windows NT environments. The System Key options
are the following:

- Use a machine generated random key as the System Key and store the
key on the local system using a complex obfuscation algorithm. This
option provides strong encryption of password information in the
registry and allows for unattended system restart.

- Use a machine generated random key and store the key on a floppy
disk. The floppy disk with the System Key is required for the system
to start and must be inserted when prompted after Windows NT begins
the startup sequence, but before the system is available for users to
logon. The System Key is not stored anywhere on the local system.

- Use a password chosen by the Administrator to derive the System Key.
Windows NT will prompt for the System Key password when the system is
in the initial startup sequence, but before the system is available
for users to logon. The System Key password is not stored anywhere on
the system. An MD5 digest of the password is used as the master key to
protect the password encryption key.

The System Key options using either a password or requiring a floppy
disk introduce a new prompt during the initialization of the Windows
NT operating system. They offer the strongest protection option
available because master key material is not stored on the system and
control of the key can be restricted to a few individuals. On the
other hand, knowledge of the System Key password, or possession of the
System Key diskette is required to boot the system. (If the System Key
is saved to a floppy disk, backup copies of the System Key diskette
are recommended.) Unattended system restart may require that System
Key material be available to the system without Administrator
response. Storing the System Key on the local system using a complex
obfuscation algorithm makes the key available only to core operating
system security components. In the future, it will be possible to
configure the System Key to obtain the key material from tamper
proof hardware components for maximum security.

WARNING: If the System Key password is forgotten or the System Key
floppy disk lost it may not be possible to start the system. Protect
and store the System Key information safely with backup copies in the
event of emergency. The only way to recover the system if the System
Key is lost is using a repair disk to restore the registry to a state
prior to enabling strong encryption. See the Repair Issues section

Strong encryption may be configured independently on the Primary and
each Backup Domain Controllers (DCs). Each domain controller will have
a unique password encryption key and a unique System Key. For example,
the Primary DC may be configured to use a machine generated System Key
stored on a diskette, and Backup DCs may each use a different machine
generated System Key stored on the local system. A machine generated
System Key stored locally on a Primary domain controller is not

Before enabling strong encryption for Primary domain controllers, you
may want to ensure a complete updated Backup domain controller is
available to use as a backup system until changes to the Primary
domain are complete and verified. Before enabling strong encryption on
any system, Microsoft recommends making a fresh copy of the Emergency
Repair Disk, including the security information in the registry, using
the command, RDISK /S.

The SYSKEY command is used to select the System Key option and
generate the initial key value. The key value may be either a machine
generated key or a password derived key. The SYSKEY command first
displays a dialog showing whether strong encryption is enabled or
disabled. After the strong encryption capability is enabled, it cannot
be disabled. To enable strong authentication of the account database,
select the option "Encryption Enabled", and click OK. A confirm dialog
appears reminding the administrator to make an updated emergency
repair disk. A new dialog appears presenting options for the Account
Database Key. Use the options available on Account Database Key dialog
to select the System Key.

After selecting the System Key option, Windows NT must be restarted
for the System Key option to take effect. When the system restarts,
the administrator may be prompted to enter the System Key, depending
on the key option chosen. Windows NT detects the first use of the
System Key and will generate a new random password encryption key. The
password encryption key is protected with the System Key, and then all
account password information is strongly encrypted.

The SYSKEY command needs to be run on each system where strong
encryption of the account password information is required. SYSKEY
supports a "-l" command option to generate the master key and store
the key locally on the system. This option enables strong password
encryption in the registry and allows the command to run without an
interactive dialog. The SYSKEY command can be used at a later time to
change the System Key options from one method to another, or to change
the System Key to a new key. Changing the System Key requires
knowledge of, or possession of, the current System Key. If the
password derived System Key option is used, SYSKEY does not enforce
a minimum password length, however long passwords (greater than 12
characters) are recommended. The maximum System Key password length is
128 characters.


Introduction of strong encryption of account password information
changes the SYSTEM and SAM portions of the registry in ways that
effect the repair options available for recovery of a Windows NT
system. Always use the RDISK command with the /S option to create a
new Emergency Repair Disk including a backup copy of the SYSTEM and
SAM portion of registry in the \repair directory.

For complete recovery options, the following Emergency Repair Disks
should be available:

- Prior to installing the System Key hotfix, create a fresh repair
disk. This disk is a "pre-hotfix" repair disk that contains a copy of
the system configuration and account information prior to installation
of the hotfix. The "pre-hotfix" repair disk may be used to recover the
registry and system files using the Windows NT distribution CDROM.

- After installation of the System Key hotfix, but before enabling
strong encryption using the SYSKEY command, create a repair disk. This
repair disk is "hotfix - Before Encryption". This repair disk can be
used to repair the Registry to the state before strong encryption is
enabled, for example it may be used to recover a system if the Windows
NT System Key is lost or forgotten.

- After running SYSKEY to enable strong encryption, create a repair
disk. This repair disk is "hotfix - After Encryption". This repair
disk, and subsequent updates to this repair disk, can be used recover
the registry with strong encryption intact using the System Key in
effect at the time the repair disk was last updated.

The System Key hotfix support for strong encryption affects the
following system components:

- SYSTEM and SAM registry hives

- Three system security component files: Winlogon.exe, Samsrv.dll,

In general, the repair process needs to use matching versions of these
components. Whatever repair option you choose, the repair process will
coordinate repair of the registry hives with the matching system

The following table lists the recovery options available.

Desired System        Repair disk to        Repaired System
Configuration         apply
after Repair


Windows NT 4.0,   Use the "Pre-hotfix" Registry matches system before
prior to hotfix   repair disk          hotfix installed; the three
installation                           system security component files
           need to be repaired from the
                                       Windows NT 4.0 compact disc to
                                       match the pre-hotfix registry

Windows NT 4.0 with  Use the "hotfix -  Registry matches the system
hotfix installed,    Before Encryption" before strong encryption. but
strong               repair disk        System Key is not in effect;
encryption is not                       strong encryption not enabled.
enabled                                 System security files do not
                                        need to be repaired from the
                                        Windows NT 4.0 compact disc


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